Paritosh Kumar Biswas earned Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree (1990) from the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh and PhD degree (1995) from the St. Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia. He also received a Diploma in Poultry Diseases and Diagnostic Methods (2006) from the Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University (currently, integrated with the Copenhagen University), Copenhagen, Denmark and Six month-long intensive training on Molecular Microbiology from the Copenhagen University, Denmark (2010-11).
He started his professional career as a Veterinary Assistant Surgeon (1995-96) under the Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Bangladesh, then served as the Livestock Specialist in Ansar-VDP Unnayan Bank (1996 -98), a specialized Bank in Bangladesh from which he joined the Department of Microbiology, the then Chittagong Government Veterinary College (currently, CVASU, from 7 August 2006) in 1998 and served as an Associate Professor until 2003. Since then he has been working as a Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, except for 8 months in 2008 - 2009 when he served as a National Consultant (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreak response and training, Bangladesh) at FAO, Bangladesh. As part of additional responsibilities he also held some other academic positions: Head of the Department of Microbiology (1998 – 2006, 2011-13), Coordinator in Bangladesh for the Commonwealth-funded Distance Learning Partnership Project on Commonwealth Scholarship with Master of Science degree courses in the areas: Livestock Health and Production, Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health at the Royal Veterinary College, London, UK (2011-13); Dean, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, CVASU (2013-15); Executive Editor, Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (2012-14) and Director (additional charge), One Health Institute, CVASU. Currently (from 2015), he additionally holds the position of Director (in-charge), Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), CVASU.
His research interests include poultry diseases, zoonoses and emerging zoonotic diseases, epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic pathogens.
As the principal investigator Dr.Biswas successfully completed thirteen research projects financed by different national and international agencies and was/is also involved with three other projects as a co-investigator/team member. He has published 34 papers so far in internationally reputed journals. He has also published 24 papers in Regional or National journals (see all published credentials as listed below).
Papers published in international peer-reviewed journals
1) Younjung Kim, Paritosh K. Biswas, Mohammad Giasuddin, MahmudulHasan, Rashed Mahmud, Yu-Mei Chang, Steve Essen, Mohammed A Samad, Nicola S Lewis, Ian H Brown, Natalie Moyen, Md. AhasanulHoque, Nitish C. Debnath, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Guillaume Fournié. Prevalence of avian influenza A(H5) and A(H9) in live bird markets in Bangladesh. 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases (Accepted)
2) P. K. Biswas, M. Giasuddin, P. Chowdhury, H. Barua, N. C. Debnath, M. Yamage. 2017. Incidence of contamination of live bird markets in Bangladesh with influenza A virus and subtypes H5, H7 and H9. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12788
3) KaushikChattopadhyay, Guillaume Fournie, Md. AbulKalam, Paritosh K. Biswas, AhasanulHoque, Nitish C. Debnath, MahmudurRahman, Dirk U. Pfeiffer,David Harper, and David L. Heymann. 2017. A Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis of Avian Inﬂuenza Policy in Bangladesh. EcoHealth. DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1285-2.
4) Farzana Islam Rume, ChowdhuryRafiqulAhsan, Paritosh Kumar Biswas, MahmudaYasmin, Peter Braun, Mathias C.Walter, Markus Antwerpen, Gregor Grass, Matthias Hanczaruk. 2016. Unexpected genomic relationships between Bacillus anthracis strains from Bangladesh and Central Europe. Infection, Genetics and Evolution.45: 66 -74.
5) Rume FI, Antwerpen M, Braun P, Biswas PK, Yasmin M, Grass G, Ahsan CR, Hanczaruk M. 2016. Genome sequence of Bacillus anthracisstrain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh. Genome Announc 4(4):e00748-16. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00748-16.
6) M. D. Gupta, A. Das, M. Z. Islam, P. K. Biswas. 2016. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings. Epidemiology and Infections.144: 2501 – 2508. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268816001047.
7) Farzana Islam Rume, AlessiaAffuso, Valeria Rondinone, VivianaManzulli, SerrecchiaLuigina, EmanueleCampese, Paritosh Kumar Biswas, ChowdhuryRafiqulAhsan, MahmudaYasmin, Antonio Fasanella, Martin Hugh-Jones. 2016. Genotype analysis of Bacillus anthracis strains circulating in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153548.
8) Biswas, P.K., M. Giasuddin, B. K. Nath, M. Z. Islam, N. C. Debnath,M. Yamage, 2015. Biosecurity and Circulation of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Live-Bird Markets in Bangladesh, 2012.TransboundEmerg Dis.doi: 10.1111/tbed.12454.
9) P.K. Biswas, M. Z. Islam, N.C Debnath, M.Yamage. 2014. Modeling and Roles of Meteorological Factors in Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1. PLoS ONE. 9:e98471.
10) K. Roy, M.R. Bertelsen, S.E. Pors, K.W. Johansen, A. T. Kristensen, M. Kjelgaard-Hansen, J. P. Christensen, P.K. Biswas, A.M. Bojesen. 2014. Inflammation induced hemostatic response in layer chickens infected with Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as evaluated by fibrinogen, prothrombin time and thromboelastography. Avian Pathology.43: 364 – 70.
11) M.Z. Islam, A. Musekiwa, K. Islam, S. Ahmed, S. Chowdhury, A. Ahad, P.K. Biswas. 2014. Regional Variation in the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Cattle: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. PLoS ONE. 9:e93299.
12) M. Z. Islam, J. P. Christensen, P. K. Biswas. 2014. Sorbitol non-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle in smallholdings. Epidemiology and Infections. DOI: 10.1017/s0950268814000351
13) Barua, H., Biswas, P.K., Talukder, K.A., Olsen, K.E.P., Christensen, J.P. 2014. Poultry as a possible source of non-typhoidalSalmonella entericaserovars in humans in Bangladesh, Veterinary Microbiology. 168:372-380.
14) K Roy, M Kjelgaard-Hansen, S E Pors, J P Christensen, P K Biswas, A M Bojesen. 2014. Performance of a commercial chicken-ovo-transferrin-ELISA on the serum of brown layer chickens infected with Gallibacteriumanatis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Avian Pathology. 43: 57 – 61.
15) S. Le Hello, A. A. Bekhit, S. Granier, H. Barua, J. Beutlich, M. M. Zajac, S. Münch, V. Sintchenko, B. Bouchrif, K. Fashae, J-L Pinsard, L. Sontag, L. Fabre, M. Garnier, V. Guibert, P. Howard, R. Hendriksen, J. P. Christensen, P. K. Biswas, A. Cloeckaert, W. Rabsch, D. Wasyl, B. Doublet, F-X Weill. 2013. The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain. Frontiers in Microbiology. 4:395. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00395
16) K Roy, M Bisgaard, NC Kyvsgaard, J P Christensen, O L Nielsen, P K Biswas, S E Pors, A M Bojesen. 2013. Pathogenicity of wild-type and small-colony variants of Streptococcus equisubsp.zooepidemicus in layer chickens. Avian Pathology. 42: 316-
17) H. Barua, P.K. Biswas. K.E.P Olsen, S. K. Shil, J.P. Christensen. 2013.Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh. PLoSONE.8 : e57811.
18) Ahmed SS, Themudo GE, Christensen JP, Biswas P.K, Giasuddin M, Samad MA, Toft N, Ersbøll AK. 2012. Molecular epidemiology of circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chickens, in Bangladesh. Vaccine. 30: 7381-90.
19) Ahmed SS, Ersbøll AK, Biswas PK, Christensen JP, Hannan AS, Toft N. 2012. Ecological determinants of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh.PLoS ONE. 7:e33938.
20) H. Barua, P.K. Biswas. K.E.P Olsen, J.P. Christensen. 2012. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE.7 : e35914.
21) P. K. Biswas, M.Z. Islam, S.K. Shil, R.K. Chakraborty, S.S.U. Ahmed, J.P. Christensen. 2012. Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smalllholdings. Epidemiology and Infections. 140: 1888-95. Doi:10.1017/s0950268811002408.
22) P.K. Biswas, J.P. Christensen, S.S.U.Ahmed, H. Barua, A. Das, M.H.Rahman, M. Giasuddin, M.A.Habib, A.S.M.A. Hannan, N.C. Debnath. 2011. Mortality and clinical features of highly pathogenic avian influenza in naturally infected chickens in Bangladesh. Rev. Sci. tech. Off.int. Epiz. 30: 871-878.
23) P.K. Biswas, M.H. Rahman, A.Das, S.S.U. Ahmed, M. Giasuddin, J.P. Christensen. 2011. Risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection in chickens in small-scale commercial farms in a high risk area, Bangladesh, 2008. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 58:519-525.
24) S.S. Ahmed, A.K. Ersboll, P.K.Biswas, J.P. Christensen, N. Toft. 2011. Spatio-Temporal magnitude and direction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE. 6: e24324.
25) S.S.U. Ahmed, A.K. Ersboll, P.K. Biswas, J.P. Christensen. 2010. The space-time clustering of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh. Epidemiology and Infections. 138: 843-852.
26) N. G. Gregory, P.K. Biswas, S.H. Chowdhury. 2010. Recent concerns about the environment in Bangladesh. Outlook on Agriculture. 39:115-120.
27) P. K. Biswas, J.P. Christensen, S.S.U. Ahmed, A. Das, M.H. Rahman, H. Barua, M. Giasuddin, A.S.M.A. Hannan, M.A. Habib, N.C. Debnath. 2009. Risk for Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1) in Backyard Chickens in Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15: 1931-1936.
28) P. K. Biswas, J. P. Christensen, S. S. U. Ahmed, H. Barua, A. Das, M. H. Rahman, M. Giasuddin, A. S. M. A. Hannan, A. M. Habib, N. C. Debnath. 2009. Risk factors for infection with highly pathogenic influenza A Virus (H5N1) in commercial chickens in Bangladesh. Veterinary Record. 164:743-746.
29) P. K. Biswas, H. Barua, G.M.N Uddin, D. Biswas, A. Ahad, N. C. Debnath. 2009. Serosurvey of five viruses in chickens on smallholdings in Bangladesh. Preventive Veterinary Medecine. 88: 67-71.
30) P.K. Biswas, J. P. Christensen, S.S.U. Ahmed, H. Barua, A. Das, M.H. Rahman, M. Giasuddin, A.S.M.A.Hannan, M.A. Habib, A. Ahad, A.S.M.A. Rahman, R. Faruque, N.C. Debnath. 2008. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14: 1909-1912
31) P. K. Biswas, G.M.N. Uddin, H. Barua, K. Roy, D.Biswas and N. C. Debnath. 2008. Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in Bangladesh. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 83: 260-271
32) P.K.Biswas, G.M.N. Uddin, H.Barua, K.Roy, D.Biswas, A.Ahad and N.C.Debnath. 2006. Causes of loss of Sonali chickens on smallholder households in Bangladesh. Preventive Veterinary Medicine.76:185-195.
33) P.K. Biswas,G.M.N. Uddin,H. Barua, K. Roy, D. Biswas, A. Ahad and N.C. Debnath. 2006. Immune status of semi-scavenging Sonali chickens in Bangladesh against Newcastle disease. Livestock Research for Rural Development.18: 1-10.
34) P.K. Biswas, D.Biswas, S.Ahmed, A.Rahman and N.C.Debnath.2005.A longitudinal study of the incidence of major endemic and epidemic diseases affecting semi-scavenging chickens reared under the Participatory Livestock Development Project Areas in Bangladesh. Avian Pathology. 34: 303-312.
Papers published in regional journals
1) ShamimaNajmin, MD Omar Qayum, Paritosh Kumar Biswas, Shubhagata Das and BabuKantiNath. Pathogenic potentials and shedding probability of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in experimentally infected backyard chicken. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 5: 196-203.
2) M Z Islam, AAhad, P K Biswas. 2013. Antimicrobial resistance profile of sorbitol non-fermenting shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from smallholding cattle. Journal of Infection and Molecular Biology. 1:58-63.
3) P.K. Biswas, B.K. Sil, R. Faruque, S. Ahmed. D. Biswas and S. Chowdhury. 2002. Adenovirus induced hydro pericardium- hepatitis syndrome in broiler parent chickens in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 5:994-996.
4) Sonin P.F, Biswas P.K. 1995. Immunogenic properties of adhesive antigens of Escherichia coli (immunogenniesboistbaadgezivnikhantigenovEsherekhii). Current Problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieproblemiVeterinarnoiMedichini).123: 88-89 (in Russian).
5) Sonin P.F. Biswas P.K. Kanapatov Y.V. 1995.Methods of getting antifimbrial coli serum in rabbits and in hens. (polycheniegiperimmunnoiantiadgezivnnoikolisivorotkinakrolikach u kyrach).Current Problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieproblemiVeterinarnoiMedichini). 123: 89-91 (in Russian).
6) Sonin P.F, Biswas P.K. 1995. Antigenic structures of pathogenic Escherichia coli affecting chickens in Leningrad Region (AntigennaiactryktyrapatogennoiEsherekhii, Videlennikhotkyr V khoziastvakhLeningradskoiOblasti). Current Problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieproblemiVeterinarnoiMedichini). 123: 92-94 (in Russian).
7) Biswas P.K. Sonin P.F. 1994. Adhesiveness and adhesive antigens of Escherichia coli affecting chickens. Current problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieProblemiVeterinarii).121: 33-35 (in Russian).
8) Kalikoba G.K. Aliev A.S. Sonin P.F, Biswas P.K. 1994.Susceptibility of chickens to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 (Chuvstvitelnosthchipliat k vipycyinfekchionnoibyrsalnoibolezni 2 serotipa).Current Problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieProblemiVeterinarii). 121: 68-69 (in Russian).
9) Sonin P.F, Tylev Y.V. Avgystinovskaia L.B, Biswas P.K. 1994. Results on application of an immunostimulator and an inhibitor in preventing synthesis of nucleic acids of onco-viruses at poultry industry level (Rezyltatiproizvodstvennovoispitaniaimmunostimyliatyra e ingibitorasintezanyklenovikhkislotonkovirysob).Current problems in Veterinary Medicine (ActyalnieProblemiVeterinarii). 121: 115-116 (in Russian).
Papers published in National Journals
1) Gupta M.D., Das A, Ahad A., Biswas P.K. 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of sorbitol non-fermenting including shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from Black Bengal goat. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2: 8-13.
2) Eliyas M. Biswas P.K. 2014. A cross-sectional survey on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in commercial and backyard chicken farms in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2: 14-19.
3) Biswas P.K., Sumon A.H., Barua H, Islam M.Z. Biswas D. 2014. Isolation, O-serotypic characterization, and in-vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from chickens to five common antimicrobials used in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2: 27-31.
4) M. Sultana, A. Ahad, P.K.Biswas, M.A. Rahman, H. Barua. 2008. Black Quarter (BQ) disease in cattle and diagnosis of BQ septicaemia based on gross lesions and microscopic examination. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.25: 13-16.
5) M.R.Faruque, J.P. Christensen, M. Bisgaard, B.C.Roy and P. K. Biswas. 2007. Factors influencing the vaccination programme for Newcastle disease in Bangladesh: disease outbreaks, haemagglutination inhibition titres and production under field conditions. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.24: 90-94.
6) S. D.Gupta, P.K.Biswas, M.N.Anwar, B.C.Dey and N.C.Debnath.2006.A longitudinal study to identify the causes of mortality in Fayoumi and Rhode Island Red chickens and immune status of the birds against Newcastle disease. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.24: 47-51.
7) H. Barua, P.K.Biswas, M.N.Anwar, B.C.Dey and N.C.Debnath.2006.Serosurvey and isolation of infectious bronchitis virus in chickens reared in commercial and semi-scavenging systems. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.23:114-117.
8) G. M.N Uddin and P.K. Biswas. 2006. Identification of Leptospires in the urine samples of cattle and dogs registered at Veterinary Hospital using modified silver staining technique of Fontana. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.23:1-3.
9) Z.A.Bhuiyan,P.K.Biswas,M.N.Anwar,A.Ahad and N.C.Debnath.2006. Evaluation of the efficacy of Baby chick Ranikhet disease vaccine and Bangla baby chick Ranikhet disease vaccine in Fayoumi chicks.Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology. 23:125-129.
10) P.K.Biswas,D.Biswas,S.Ahmed,H.Barua and N.C.Debnath. 2006. Serosurvey of Mycoplasmagallisepticuminfection in semi-scavenging chickens in rural areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.22:105-108.
11) P.K.Biswas,D.Biswas,S.Ahamed,H.Barua and M.A.Kalam.2005.Detection of group-specific antigen (P27) of avian leukosis viruses in semi-scavenging chickens. The Bangladesh Veterinarian.22:11-15.
12) P.K. Biswas, R. Faruque, S. Ahmed and V.C. Dey. 2001. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogenic Escherichiacoli isolated from Fayoumi chicken. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology. 18:121-126.
13) P.K Biswas ,P.F.Sonin, Y.V Kanapatov, and M.A. Rahman . 1998. Immunogenicity of a formalin–inactivated fimbriatedEscherichia coli vaccine in chickens. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology.15: 67-72.
14) P.K, Biswas, P.F.,Sonin and Y. V..Kanapatov.1996. Isolation and sero-typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli from chickens in Russia.Bangladesh Veterinary Journal. 30: 89-90.
15) P.K .Biswas, A.N.M.A. Rahman,, M.R. Faruque, P.F Sonin, Y.V Kanapatov and T. Islam. 1996. Adhesion properties and Fimbrial antigens of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from poultry. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology. 13: 15-21.
Research Grants Received
As the principal investigator
1) Active Surveillance of HPAI in Bangladesh – Live Bird Markets Sink Surveillance Activities in Chittagong Metro Area; from FAO(2017 -2019) (value around US$ 25,000 plus consumables)
2) Increasing livestock production in the Hills through better husbandry, health service and improving market access through value and supply chain management; from KGF, Bangladesh(2017 -2021) (value around US$ 91,000, PRTC part)
3) Detection and molecular characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 and low pathogenic H9N2 avian influenza viruses and their relative impacts on commercial poultry farms; from BAS-USDA(2017-2019) (value around US$39,000)
4) KGF-funded different trainings to enhance the capacities of Department of Livestock Services, Bangladesh. KGF, Bangladesh (2016 – 2018) (value around US$ 82000)
5) The Impacts of different hygienic practices on Avian Influenza virus isolation rates in live bird markets and the status of H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes in their environments; from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (2013-14) (Value around US$ 25,500)
6) The Impacts of different hygienic practices on Avian Influenza virus isolation rates in live bird markets; from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (2012-13) (Value around US$ 40,000)
7) Time series analysis of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh during year 2007-2011, from FAO (2012-13) (Value around US$ 4000)
8) Prevalence and persistency of important enteric zoonotic pathogens in Smallholders’ livestock; from Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)-assisted programme (2011-12) (Value around US$ 14,000)
9) Enhancement of smallholders’ livestock disease diagnoses, mapping of the important diseases and identification of risk factors in the RFLDC area; from DANIDA-assisted programme (2009 -11) (Value around US$ 63,000)
10) A cross sectional survey on the prevalence of Salmonella on commercial and backyard chicken farms in Chittagong district; from Bangladesh University Grant Commission (2009-10) (Value around US$ 1500)
11) Study of the origin and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Bangladesh; from DANIDA (2007 – 08) (Value around US$ 16,000)
12) A longitudinal study to identify the causes on the mortality of Sonali birds and broody hen chicks of key beneficiaries in the ‘Smallholder Livestock Development Project-2 (SLDP-2); from DANIDA (2003 – 2004) (Value around US$ 19,760)
13) Development of Participatory Livestock Development Project (PLDP) area based surveillance system for epidemiological scenario and quantification of the semi-scavenger losses attributed to main endemic diseases of poultry; from DANIDA (2002 – 3) (Value around US$ 28,226)
As a member of a team/Co-investigator
1) Controlling and monitoring emerging zoonoses in the poultry farming and trading system in Bangladesh: an interplay between pathogens, people, policy; from BBSRC under the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS) programme, UK (2014 – 18) (Value around UK £ 1,934,084)
2) Molecular epidemiology and genotyping of Bacillus anthracis in cattle of Bangladesh; from BAS-USDA(2015 – 17) (Value around US$ 49500)
3) Strengthening and Expansion of postgraduate research capabilities for the diagnoses, prevention and control of infectious zoonotic diseases in livestock and poultry of Bangladesh; from a World Bank assisted programme – HEQEP (2012 -15) (Value around US$102,000)
Award and other Recognition
ICEID 2018 Leaders Program (CDC, USA)
Member, UKRI (United Kingdom Research and Innovation) International Development Peer Review College (2018 - )
General Microbiology (GMC – 201)
Systemic Bacteriology and Mycology (SBM-202)
Advanced General Bacteriology (AGB – 601)
Zoonoses (ZNS 601)
Molecular Microbiology (MMB-602)
Avian Microbes (AMB-602)
PhD: 7 (as a co-supervisor 3 with Copenhagen University, Denmark) (Currently 3, 1 with Copenhagen university)
MPhil: 3 (with the University of Chittagong)
Master: 29 (Currently, 6)